European Respiratory Society

Fig. 1. –

Fri, 2021-07-09 18:00 -- admin
Summary: 
Pathophysiology of pulmonary arterial hypertension. In the endothelium, endothelial injury and dysfunction cause an excess in endothelium-derived constricting factors (endothelin), and a lack of endothelium-derived dilating factors (prostaglandin (PG)I2 and nitric oxide (NO)). Smooth muscle dysfunction is related to the reduced expression of voltage-dependent potassium channels. Extracellular matrix proliferation occurs. An infiltration of circulating elements (inflammatory cells and platelet aggregation) occurs leading to the release of growth factors including vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF), platelet derived-growth factor (PDGF), epidermal growth factor (EGF), and transforming growth factor (TGF)‐β, to the release of cytokines, and to the liberation of serotonin and thromboxane. IL: interleukin; RANTES: regulated on activation, T‐cell expressed and secreted; SMC: smooth muscle cell.
Type: 
Figure
Sub Component: 
Normal
Slug: 
F1
Highwire: Type: 
fragment
HighWire: Journal/Corpus Code: 
ersbk
Highwire: pisa_id: 
ersbk;9781904097938/1/chapter_4/F1
Highwire: pisa_master: 
ersbk;9781904097938/1/chapter_4/F1
HighWire: Atom Path: 
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Highwire: cpath: 
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Image - Large: 
Highwire: cpathalias: 
/content/ersbk/9781904097938/9781904097938/SEC6/F1
Image - Medium: 
Image - Small: 
Highwire: Variants: 
expansion
Highwire: State: 
Released
Contributors: 
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<atom:contributor xmlns:atom="http://www.w3.org/2005/Atom" xmlns:hwp="http://schema.highwire.org/Journal" xmlns:nlm="http://schema.highwire.org/NLM/Journal" hwp:inherited="yes" nlm:contrib-type="author"><atom:name>N.W. Morrell</atom:name><nlm:name name-style="western" hwp:sortable="Morrell N.W."><nlm:surname>Morrell</nlm:surname><nlm:given-names>N.W.</nlm:given-names></nlm:name></atom:contributor>
<atom:contributor xmlns:atom="http://www.w3.org/2005/Atom" xmlns:hwp="http://schema.highwire.org/Journal" xmlns:nlm="http://schema.highwire.org/NLM/Journal" hwp:inherited="yes" nlm:contrib-type="author"><atom:name>M. Abramowicz</atom:name><nlm:name name-style="western" hwp:sortable="Abramowicz M."><nlm:surname>Abramowicz</nlm:surname><nlm:given-names>M.</nlm:given-names></nlm:name></atom:contributor>
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<atom:contributor xmlns:atom="http://www.w3.org/2005/Atom" xmlns:hwp="http://schema.highwire.org/Journal" xmlns:nlm="http://schema.highwire.org/NLM/Journal" hwp:inherited="yes" nlm:contrib-type="author"><atom:name>E. Grünig</atom:name><nlm:name name-style="western" hwp:sortable="Grünig E."><nlm:surname>Grünig</nlm:surname><nlm:given-names>E.</nlm:given-names></nlm:name></atom:contributor>
<atom:contributor xmlns:atom="http://www.w3.org/2005/Atom" xmlns:hwp="http://schema.highwire.org/Journal" xmlns:nlm="http://schema.highwire.org/NLM/Journal" hwp:inherited="yes" nlm:contrib-type="author"><atom:name>P. Hervé</atom:name><nlm:name name-style="western" hwp:sortable="Hervé P."><nlm:surname>Hervé</nlm:surname><nlm:given-names>P.</nlm:given-names></nlm:name></atom:contributor>
<atom:contributor xmlns:atom="http://www.w3.org/2005/Atom" xmlns:hwp="http://schema.highwire.org/Journal" xmlns:nlm="http://schema.highwire.org/NLM/Journal" hwp:inherited="yes" nlm:contrib-type="author"><atom:name>R.C. Trembath</atom:name><nlm:name name-style="western" hwp:sortable="Trembath R.C."><nlm:surname>Trembath</nlm:surname><nlm:given-names>R.C.</nlm:given-names></nlm:name></atom:contributor>
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<atom:contributor xmlns:atom="http://www.w3.org/2005/Atom" xmlns:hwp="http://schema.highwire.org/Journal" xmlns:nlm="http://schema.highwire.org/NLM/Journal" hwp:inherited="yes" nlm:contrib-type="author"><atom:name>M.M. Hoeper</atom:name><nlm:name name-style="western" hwp:sortable="Hoeper M.M."><nlm:surname>Hoeper</nlm:surname><nlm:given-names>M.M.</nlm:given-names></nlm:name></atom:contributor>
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